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Sunday, July 22, 2018

KF7PXT Summits On the Air (SOTA) Blog: Big Arm Point (W7M/LM-168) SOTA Activation

KF7PXT Summits On the Air (SOTA) Blog: Big Arm Point (W7M/LM-168) SOTA Activation: On Friday 16 March Kimber and I were making a trip to Missoula to pick up my daughter. I decided that it had been a while since I had the...

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From Here to Human-Level Artificial General Intelligence in Four (Not All That) Simple Steps: How do we get from today’s narrow AI tools to the artificial general intelligence envisioned by futurists and science fiction authors?

KF7PXT Summits On the Air (SOTA) Blog: 4590 (W7M/FN-235) SOTA Activation



KF7PXT Summits On the Air (SOTA) Blog: 4590 (W7M/FN-235) SOTA Activation: My wife and I made the 5.8 mile R/T hike up to Point 4590. This is a great hike in the Kalispell area and gives way to great views as ca...

6-Band Ham Radio Vertical DX Commander Lite - Part 3

THE PROMISE OF AMERICAN LIFE

INDEX

A
  • Abolitionism,
    • the good American democratic view of,49;
    • belief of supporters of, regarding slavery,78-79;
    • a just estimate of work of, 80-81;
    • perverted conception of democracy held by party of, 80-8186;
    • baleful spirit of, inherited by Republicans, and its later effects, 95;
    • was the one practical result of the struggle of American intelligence for emancipation, during the Middle Period, 422;
    • strength and weakness of the intellectual ferment shown by, 423.
  • Administrative reform in states, 333 ff.
  • "Admirable Crichton,"
    • trait of the English character illustrated by, 14.
  • Africans,
    • as proper subjects for colonizing, 259.
  • Agricultural community,
    • the Middle West at first primarily a, 62-63;
    • passage from, into an urban and industrial community, 101;
    • the transformation of Great Britain from an, to an industrial community, 234.
  • Agricultural laborers,
    • effect of organization of labor on, 396.
  • "American Farmer, Letters of an," 8-910.
  • Apprentices to trades, 391.
  • Architects,
    • illustration drawn from, of improvement of popular standards, 444-445.
  • Aristocracy in British political system, 231-232;
    • loss of ground by Great Britain traceable to, 233-235;
    • resignation of economic responsibility by, a betrayal of the national interest, 234-235.
  • Armies,
    • essential and justifiable under present conditions, 256 ff., 264.
  • Arts,
    • technical standard in practice of, 434-435.
  • Asiatics,
    • as proper subjects for colonizing, 259.
  • Association,
    • necessity of, for nations as well as for individuals, 263-264;
    • the modern nation the best machinery for raising level of human, 284;
    • necessity of, in case of laboring classes, 388.
  • Australian ballot,
    • professional politicians uninjured by, 341;
    • question of desirability of, 341-342.
  • Austria,
    • policy of Bismarck toward, 248-249.
  • Austria-Hungary,
    • effect of disintegration of, on Germany, 253;
    • unstable condition of, renders disarmament impossible, 257;
    • secondary position of, in Europe, and reasons, 311.
B
  • Balance of Power,
    • development of doctrine of, 220.
  • Bank, National,
    • Hamilton's policy in creating, 39;
    • reasons for hostility of Jacksonian Democrats to, 57;
    • view of, held by Republicans, 57-58;
    • campaign of Jackson and his followers against, 58-59;
    • Whigs' failure in attempt to re-charter, 68.
  • Bank examiners,
    • difference between Federal commissions and, 363-364.
  • Birth-rate,
    • lowering of, in France, 245.
  • Bismarck, Otto von, 8242256;
    • personal career of, 247;
    • unification of Germany by, 247-249;
    • course of, as Imperial Chancellor, 249 ff.;
    • inheritance left to German Empire by, in the way of overbearing attitude to domestic and foreign opponents, 251;
    • provoking of Germany's two wars by, was justifiable, 256;
    • quoted on what constitutes the real nation, 265-266.
  • "Boss,"
  • Bourbon monarchy, the, 219-220;
    • cause of downfall of, 220.
  • Bryan, William J., 136144151;
    • particular consideration of, as a reformer, 156 ff.;
    • special reforms advocated by, 156-158;
    • incoherence in political thinking shown by, 158-159;
    • policy of, toward large corporations, 358.
  • Business man,
    • origins of the typical American, 106-108;
    • business regarded as warfare by, 107-108;
    • relation between railroads and the, 109-111;
    • rise of, in Great Britain, and relations with aristocracy, 234-235.
  • Butler, Nicholas Murray, quoted, 408.
C
  • Cabinet, or executive council,
    • suggested for governors, 338-339.
  • Calhoun, John, a leader of the Whigs, 66-677982.
  • Canada,
    • question of coöperation of, in establishment of a peaceful international system, 303-304;
    • desirability of greater commercial freedom between United States and, 304-305;
    • preparing the way for closer political association, 305-306;
    • lines along which treaty between United States, Great Britain, and, might be made, 306.
  • Carnegie, Andrew, 202402.
  • Catholic Church,
    • as a bond between Western European states, 217;
    • losing battle of, with political authority, 283.
  • Central America,
    • opportunity for improving international political conditions in, 303.
  • Centralization,
    • nationality and, 272-279;
    • demand for more rather than less, because of growing centralization of American activity, 274-275;
    • increase in, injurious to certain aspects of traditional American democracy, 276;
    • perniciousness of prejudice against, 278-279.
  • Chapman, John Jay, work by,
  • Checks and balances,
    • system of, 33316;
    • system of, proves especially unsuitable for state governments, 323-324.
  • China, questions raised concerning American foreign policy by, 309-310.
  • Christianity a common bond between early European states, 217 ff.
  • Church,
    • change in function of the, resulting from change in modern nations, 283.
  • Cities,
  • City states,
    • Greek and mediæval, 215.
  • Civil service reform, 143;
    • disappointing results of, 334-335;
    • causes of partial failure of, 335-337.
  • Civil War,
    • a case of a justifiable war, 255-256;
    • as a surgical operation, 269.
  • Class discrimination, 129191.
  • Clay, Henry,
    • Whig doctrine of, 5266;
    • reason for failure of ideas of, 69-70;
    • as a believer in compromises, 76;
    • an example of cheapening of intellectual individuality of leaders during Middle Period, 427.
  • Cleveland, Grover, 168.
  • Colonial expansion,
    • the principle of nationality not hostile to, 259;
    • incompatibility of, for European powers, with aggrandizement at home, 260-262;
    • not a cause of wars, but the contrary, 260-261;
    • question of what are limits of a practicable, 262-263;
    • is accomplishing a work without which a permanent international settlement would be impossible, 263;
    • validity of, even for a democracy, 308;
    • of the United States, 308-310.
  • Commerce,
    • question of control of, by state or Federal government, 351-357.
  • Commissions,
    • supervision of corporations by, 360-361;
    • the objection to government by, 362;
    • false principle involved in government by, in that commissions make the laws which they administer, 364;
    • public ownership contrasted with government by, 366;
    • the great objection to government by, in its effect on the capable industrial manager, 368.
  • Communal state,
  • Communities,
    • religious, 283;
    • various brands of socialistic, during American Middle Period, 422.
  • Competition,
    • wastes of, lessened by big corporations, 115;
    • restriction of, by labor unions, 127386-388;
    • coöperation substituted for, by big corporations, 359.
  • Compromise,
    • erected into an ultimate principle by British governing class, 234238;
    • in America in the interests of harmony, to be avoided, 269-270.
  • Congressional usurpation, danger to American people from, 69.
  • Constabulary,
  • Constitution,
    • the Federal, founders of, displayed distrust of democracy, 33-34;
    • despite error of Federalists, has proved an instrument capable of flexible development, 34-35;
    • legal restrictions in, 35;
    • defect of unmodifiability of, 36;
    • on the whole a successful achievement, 36-37;
    • an accomplishment of the leaders of opinion rather than of the body of the people, 38;
    • sanctioning of slavery by, 72;
    • power bestowed on lawyers by, 132-134;
    • immutability of, regarded as a fault in the American system, 200;
    • serious changes in, not to be thought of, at present, 316;
    • in all respects but one is not in need of immediate amendment, 351;
    • distinction made in, between state and inter-state commerce is irrelevant to real facts of industry and trade, 351-352;
    • will in the end have to dispense with the distinction, 356-357.
  • Constitutions of states, 119.
  • Constitutional Unionists,
    • belief of, concerning slavery, 78;
    • present-day lawyers compared to, 137.
  • Corporation lawyers, 136.
  • Corporations,
    • growth of big, 110-116;
    • dealings between big, 113-114;
    • fights between, prelude closer agreement, 114;
    • decrease in wastes of competition by, 115;
    • profits of, disproportionate to their services, 115;
    • equivocal position in respect to the law, 115-116;
    • unprecedented power wielded by, 116;
    • political corruption and social disintegration the result of, 117;
    • the political "Boss" and the, 122-124;
    • similarities and dissimilarities of labor unions and, 130-131386;
    • agitation against and its varying character, 143;
    • Federal regulation of, advocated by W.J. Bryan, 158;
    • problem of control of, 351 ff.;
    • interference of state governments with railroad, insurance, and other corporations, 352-355;
    • exclusive Federal control of, an essential to their proper conduct, 355-356;
    • two courses that may be followed in policy of central government toward, 357;
    • W.J. Bryan's suggested policy toward, 358;
    • the Roosevelt-Taft programme, of recognition tempered by regulation, 358-360;
    • tendency of, to substitute coöperation for competition, 359;
    • supervision of, by commissions, 360-361;
    • danger of impairing efficiency of, by depriving them of freedom, 362-363;
    • laws which should be made for, on repeal of Sherman Anti-Trust Law, 364;
    • the proposed remedy for management of, is one more way of shirking the ultimate problem, 367;
    • disposal of question of excessive profits of, 370;
    • state taxation of, one means of control, 370;
    • American municipal policy toward public service corporations, 372-373;
    • the question of public ownership, 375-379 (see Public ownership);
    • necessity for uniformity in taxation of, 385.
    • See Municipal corporations and Public service corporations.
  • Council,
    • legislative and administrative, suggested for state governments, 329-330;
    • appointment of an executive council or cabinet by the governor, 338.
  • Courts,
  • Crèvecoeur, Hector St. John de, quoted, 8-9.
  • Criminal justice,
    • failure of American, 318;
    • reform of, by states, 344-345.
  • Criminals,
    • treatment of, by states, 345-346.
  • Critics and criticism in America, 450-451;
    • broadening of the work of, 451-452.
  • Crazier, John B., quoted, 15-16.
  • Cuba,
    • relations between United States and, 303308.
  • Cumberland Road, the, 67.
D
  • Debt, national,
    • Hamilton's belief in good effects of, 40-41.
  • Democracy,
    • as represented by Republicans at close of Revolution, 28-2930-31;
    • Federalists' antagonism to, 32-33;
    • misfortune of founding national government on distrust of, 33-34;
    • misunderstanding of, as an ideal, in 1786, 34;
    • Hamilton's distrust of, 41;
    • Jefferson the leader of, against Hamilton and his policies, 42-43;
    • Jefferson's view of, as extreme individualism, 43;
    • real policy of Jeffersonian, as revealed upon triumph of his party, 46-49;
    • Jeffersonian, becomes reconciled with Federalism, 46-47;
    • fifty-year sway of Jeffersonian tradition, 48;
    • questionable results of triumph of Jeffersonian, 50-51;
    • existence of a genuine American, proved by War of 1812, 54-55
    • slavery as an institution of, 80 ff.;
    • work of Abolitionists in the name of, 80-81;
    • Abolitionists' perverted conception of, 80-8186;
    • Lincoln an example of the kind of human excellence to be fashioned by, 89;
    • Lincoln's realization of his ideal of a, 94;
    • the labor union and the tradition of, 126 ff.;
    • the American, and the social problem, 138-140;
    • the ordinary conception of, as a matter of popular government, 176-180;
    • the true meaning of, 176 ff.;
    • and discrimination, 185-193;
    • the real definition of, 207 ff.;
    • a superior form of political organization in so far as liberty and equality make for human brotherhood, 207-208;
    • principles of nationality and, in England, 230 ff.;
    • and nationality in France, 239 ff.;
    • principles of, and of nationality in America, 267 ff.;
    • and peace, 308 ff.
  • Democracy, Jacksonian (or Western), 52 ff.;
    • suspected by Hamilton, appreciated by Jefferson, 52-53;
    • disapproves Jefferson's policy of peaceful warfare, 53;
    • forces Madison into second war with England, 53-54;
    • the first genuinely national body of Americans, 54-55;
    • characteristics of, 55-56;
    • reasons for hostility of, to office-holding clique and the National Bank, 57;
    • causes leading to introduction of spoils system by, 5759-60;
    • error of views of, 60-61;
    • the first body of Americans genuinely democratic in feeling, 61-62;
    • the true point of view in studying the, 63-65;
    • reason for triumph of, over Whigs, 69-70;
    • attitude of, toward slavery, 73-7484;
    • in 1850 Stephen A. Douglas becomes leader of, 84;
    • rally to Lincoln's standard, 86;
    • made to understand for the first time by Lincoln that American nationality is a living principle, 88.
  • Direct primaries,
    • fallacy of system of, 342-343.
  • Disarmament,
    • undesirability of, under present conditions in Europe, 257;
    • a partial, would be fatal, 264.
  • Discrimination,
    • democracy and, 185-193;
    • class, in certain legislative acts, 191-192;
    • constructive, 193 ff.
  • Distribution of wealth,
    • improvement in, 209-210;
    • in France, 244-245;
    • equalization of, by graduated inheritance tax, 381-385.
  • Divorces,
    • the matter of, 346.
  • Douglas, Stephen. A., 84-86281.
E
  • Economic liberty of the individual, 201-206.
  • Economy, national vs. international, 235.
  • Education,
    • chaotic condition of American system of, 318;
    • opportunity for state activities concerning, 346;
    • individual vs. collective, 399 ff.;
    • is the real vehicle of improvement, by which the American is trained for his democracy, 400;
    • American faith in, characterized by superstition, 400-402;
    • popular interest in, does not give importance to the word of the educated man, 403;
    • what constitutes the real education of the individual, 403-405;
    • efficiency of national, similarly, depends on a nation's ability to profit by experience, 405;
    • education of the individual cannot accomplish the work of collective national, 407;
    • value of a reform movement for, 408;
    • the work of collective, not complete in itself, but followed by certain implications, 428.
  • Elzbacher, O., quoted, 235.
  • Emancipation,
    • conditions of individual, 409 ff.;
    • attempts at individual, 421 ff.;
    • means of individual, 427 ff.
  • Embargo,
    • Jefferson's policy of commercial, 42;
    • disapproved by Jackson and Western Democrats, 53.
  • England,
    • faith of Englishmen in, 2;
    • an early example of political efficiency found in, 217;
    • increase of national efficiency of, by attention strictly to her own affairs, 219;
    • national development of, as contrasted with France, 220-221;
    • principles of nationality and of democracy in, 230 ff.;
    • national efficiency of, until recently, 231;
    • aristocracy in political system of, 231-232;
    • causes and remedies of loss of ground by, 232 ff.;
    • the principle of compromise carried too far by aristocracy of, 234238;
    • political and social subserviency in, resulting in political privilege and social favoritism, 236-237;
    • national idea of, is a matter of freedom, 267.
  • Equality,
    • stress laid by Jeffersonian Democrats on, 44;
    • sacrifice of liberty for, by Jeffersonian Democrats, 44-45;
    • desire for, of Jacksonian Democracy, leads to war on office-holding clique and the National Bank, 57;
    • economic and social, in France, and questionable results, 245.
  • Equal rights,
    • the Jeffersonian principle of, 44 ff.;
    • tradition of, results in bosses and trusts, 148-150;
    • the slogan of all parties, 151;
    • Roosevelt's inconsistency on the point of, 172;
    • the principle of, is the expression of an essential aspect of democracy, 180;
    • insufficiency of the principle, 181;
    • inequalities which have resulted from doctrine of, 182-183;
    • grievances resulting from doctrine, 185;
    • interference with, in Pure Food Laws, factory legislation, Inter-state Commerce Acts, etc., 191-192;
    • subordinated and made helpful to the principle of human brotherhood, 207-208;
    • a logical application of, would wrongly support competition against coöperation, 359.
  • "Era of good feeling," 51.
  • Evangelization, law of, 282.
  • Executives of states,
    • proposed administrative system for, 338-341.
F
  • Factory legislation,
    • justifiable class discrimination in, 191.
  • Faguet, Emile, quoted, 193208.
  • Farmers,
    • necessity of organization not felt by, 126;
    • present position of British, 235.
  • Farming,
    • improvement of, in Prussia, 250;
    • value of specialization in, 430.
  • Farm laborers, 396.
  • Fashoda incident, 260.
  • Federalism,
    • at close of Revolutionary War, represented by Hamilton, 28-29;
    • class which supported, 30;
    • views held by supporters of, of anti-Federalists, 32-33;
    • supporters of, founded national government on distrust of democracy, 33;
    • error and misfortune of so doing, 33-34;
    • the Hamiltonian brand of, shown in constructive legislation following framing of Constitution, 39;
    • reconciliation of Republicanism and, 46-47;
    • doubtful results of combination of Republicanism and, 50-51;
    • Whig doctrine of Clay contrasted with Hamilton's Federalism, 52.
  • Federalist, Hamilton's, quotation from, 37.
  • Federalists,
  • Financial policy of Hamilton, 39.
  • Foreign policy,
    • of Great Britain, 8;
    • of European states, 254-264;
    • natural method of arriving at a definite, as shown by England and France, 257-258;
    • bearing of colonial expansion on, 260-262;
    • relation between national domestic policy and, 310.
  • Foreign policy, American, 289 ff.;
    • the Monroe Doctrine in, 291-297;
    • of Jeffersonian Republicans, 292;
    • wisdom of continued policy of isolation, 298310;
    • correct policy would be to make American system stand for peace, 299;
    • international system advocated for South and Central America, and Mexico, 300-303;
    • the question of relations with Canada, 303-306;
    • suggested treaty bearing on relations between United States, Canada, and Great Britain, 306;
    • systematic development of, an absolute necessity, 306-307;
    • colonial expansion, 308-309;
    • questions of, raised by future of China, 309-310;
    • isolation of United States is only comparative, under modern conditions, 310.
  • Fortunes,
  • France,
    • faith of Frenchmen in, 2;
    • origins of national state in, 218219;
    • effect of Revolution on national principle in, 223-224;
    • lack of representative institutions a defect in its government to-day, 228;
    • democracy and nationality in, 239 ff.;
    • a Republic proved to be best form of government for, 241-242;
    • democracy not thoroughly nationalized in, 242-243;
    • economic problem in, 244-245;
    • lack of national spirit in official domestic policy, 243-244;
    • failure of, as a colonial power as long as striving for European aggrandizement, 261;
    • national idea of, is democratic but is rendered difficult and its value limited, 268.
  • Franchises,
    • American municipal policy toward public service corporations', 372-375.
  • Freedom,
    • American tradition of, 421-422;
    • the failure to attain, 422 ff.
  • Free trade in Great Britain, 234.
  • French Revolution, the, 222 ff.
G
  • Garrison, William Lloyd,
    • mental attitude and policy of, contrasted with Lincoln's, 95427.
  • George, Henry, Jr., cited, 151.
  • Germany,
    • effect of religious wars and lack of national policy in, during early development, 219;
    • nationality in, increased after Napoleon, 225;
    • outstripping of England by, industrially, 232233;
    • relation between democracy and nationality in, 246 ff.;
    • system of protection, state ownership of railways, improvement in farming, etc., 250;
    • result of "paternalism" has been industrial expansion surpassing other European states, 250-251;
    • position of, not so high as ten years ago, 251;
    • the Social Democrats, 251-252;
    • dubious international standing of, 252-253;
    • is the power which has most to gain from a successful war, 252-253;
    • is the cause of a better understanding between England, France, and Russia, 253-254;
    • effect of success or failure of foreign policy on domestic policy, 254;
    • further consideration of international position of, and bearing on disarmament question, 256-259;
    • colonial expansion of, despite her expectation of European aggrandizement, 261;
    • danger of this policy, 261-262;
    • national idea of, turns upon the principle of official leadership toward a goal of national greatness, 267-268.
  • Governors of states, 119;
    • suggested reforms relative to administration of, 338 ff.;
    • "House of," proposed, 347.
  • Great Britain,
    • effect of position of, on domestic and foreign policy, 8261;
    • question whether colonial expansion of, has been carried too far, 262;
    • relations between Canada and, 305-306;
    • suggested arrangement between United States and, relative to Canada, 306.
    • See England.
H
  • Hamilton, Alexander,
    • doctrines of, versus those of Jefferson, 28-2945-46153;
    • insight and energy of, saved states from disunion, 37;
    • quoted on the Constitution, 37;
    • importance of work of, in constructive legislation, 38-39;
    • broad view taken by, of governmental functions, 39-40;
    • doubtful theory of, regarding national debt, 40-41;
    • reasons for loss of popularity and influence of, 41-42;
    • philosophy of, concerning liberty and the method of protecting it, 44;
    • Roosevelt's improvement on principle of, 169;
    • adaptability of doctrines of, to democracy without injury to themselves, 214;
    • foreign policy of, 289-290292-293.
  • Harriman, Edward, 202.
  • Hearst, William R., 136151155;
    • as a reformer, 142143-144;
    • radicalism of, 163;
    • inconsistencies, factiousness, and dangerous revolutionary spirit of, 164-166;
    • viewed as the logical punishment upon the American people for their sins of wrong tradition, 166.
  • Heresies of American Middle Period, and sterile results of, 422-426.
  • Hill, James J., 202.
  • Hodder, Alfred, quoted, 144160162.
  • Holland,
    • possible incorporation of, with German Empire, 253.
  • Holy Alliance,
    • political system established by, 226;
    • Monroe Doctrine the American retort to, 291.
  • Home rule, municipal, 347-350.
  • "House of Governors," proposed, 347.
  • Howe, Frederic C., 151.
  • Hughes, Governor, 135.
  • Human brotherhood,
    • liberty and equality subordinated to principle of, in ideal democracy, 207-208;
    • the only method of realizing the religion of, 453.
I
  • Ideal,
    • necessity of an individual and a national, 5-6.
  • Income taxation, 384-385.
  • Individual emancipation,
    • conditions of, 409 ff.;
    • attempts at, 421 ff.;
    • means of, 427 ff.
  • Individualism,
    • found in both Federalists and Republicans at close of Revolution, 32;
    • free play allowed to, through triumph of Jefferson and defeat of Hamilton, 49;
    • attitude of the pioneer Western Democrat toward, 64-65;
    • disappearance of political, in the machine, 117-125;
    • encouragement of, and restriction of central authority, result in the "Boss" and the "tainted" millionaire, 148-149;
    • abandonment of the Jeffersonian conception of, necessary for real reform, 152-154;
    • in education, as opposed to collective education, 399-409;
    • damage to American individuality from existing system of economic, 409 ff.;
    • method of exercising influence of, on behalf of social amelioration, 441 ff.
  • Individuality,
    • place of, in Middle West of pioneer days, 63-65;
    • disappearance of, in work of the specialist in later development of the country, 102-103;
    • injury to, from, existing system of economic individualism, 409-410;
    • real meaning of, and of individual independence, 410 ff.;
    • question of how a democratic nation can contribute to increase of, 413.
  • Industrial corporations,
  • Industrial legislation,
    • class discrimination in, 191.
  • Inheritance tax,
  • Inheritors of fortunes, 204382-384.
  • Initiative,
    • movement in favor of, in state governments, 320.
  • Insane asylums,
    • improvement of, as a function of the state, 345.
  • Institutional reform, 315 ff.
  • Insurance companies,
    • attempted regulation of, by various state governments, 355.
  • Internal improvements,
    • the Whig policy of, 66;
    • failure of, 67-68.
  • International relations of European states, 254-264.
  • International socialism, a mistake, 210-211.
  • International system,
  • Inter-state commerce,
    • question of state or Federal control of, 351-357;
    • policy to be followed by central government toward, 357-368.
  • Inter-state Commerce Law, 112-113;
    • an example of class legislation, 191.
  • Isolation,
    • loss to an individual or a nation from, far more than the gain, 263-264;
    • comparative nature of, of United States, 310-311;
    • religious sanctity given to tradition of, of United States, 313.
  • Italy,
    • national feeling in, after Napoleonic epoch, 225.
J
  • Jackson, Andrew,
  • Jefferson, Thomas,
    • doctrines of, versus those of Hamilton, 28-29;
    • as leader of the democracy the opponent of Hamilton, 42;
    • foreign policy of, 4253290292;
    • view of democracy as extreme individualism, 43;
    • stress laid by, on equality, 43-44;
    • sacrifice of liberty for equality by, 44-45;
    • fundamental difference between Hamilton and, 45-46;
    • conduct of, on assumption of power, 46-47;
    • Democracy of Jackson contrasted with Republicanism of, 52;
    • mutual appreciation of Western pioneer Democrats and, 52-53;
    • traces of work of, found in failure of Whigs against Jacksonian Democrats, 71;
    • wherein Lincoln differed from, 95;
    • necessity of transformation of doctrines of, before they can be nationalized, 153214;
    • theory and practice of, contrasted with Roosevelt's theory and practice, 170;
    • an example of triumphant intellectual dishonesty, 419.
  • Jerome, William Travers,
    • as a reformer, 143-144155184;
    • personality of, 160;
    • special class of reform advocated by, 160-161;
    • lack of success in other than municipal political field, 161-162.
  • Jesus,
    • intention of, in preaching non-resistance, 282.
  • Judges,
    • election of state, 119;
    • life tenure of office of Federal, 200;
    • as creatures of a political machine, 318.
  • Justice,
    • state reform of criminal, 344-345.
L
  • Labor problem, the, 385-398.
  • Labor unions, 126 ff., 385 ff.;
    • danger from aggressive and unscrupulous unionism, 128-129;
    • revolutionary purpose of, in demanding class discrimination, 129-130;
    • parallelism between big corporations and, 130386;
    • divergence from corporations, 131;
    • legal recognition of, demanded, and discrimination in their favor by the state, 386-387;
    • economic and social amelioration of laboring class by, 387;
    • association of laborers in, a necessity under present conditions, and the non-union man a species of industrial derelict, 387-389;
    • conditions to which unions should conform, 390-391;
    • the correct policy towards, 390;
    • preference to be given to, by state and municipal governments, but discrimination to be made between "bad" and "good" unions, 394;
    • effect of proposed constructive organization of, on non-union laborers, 395;
    • on farm laborers, 396.
  • Latin-American states,
    • coöperation of, in establishment of a stable international system, 300-303;
    • necessity first for improvement in domestic condition of, 302-303.
  • Law,
    • big corporations and the, 115-116.
  • Lawyers,
    • function of, in American political system, 131 ff.;
    • tendency of, to specialize, 134-135;
    • those who now figure in political life, 135-136;
    • corporation lawyers, 136;
    • position occupied by, in relation to modern economic and political problem, 137.
  • Legislative organization,
    • failure of American, 319-320;
    • causes, 321-324;
    • suggested remedy, 327-331;
    • quality of membership of, should be improved, 328-329;
    • preparation of measures for consideration by, 330-331.
  • "Letters of an American Farmer," 8-910.
  • Liberty,
    • Hamilton's theory concerning, as contrasted with Jeffersonian Democrats', 44-45;
    • bearing of worship of so-called, on behavior of factions at time of slavery crisis, 79;
    • responsibility of a democracy for personal, 193 ff.;
    • economic, of the individual, 201-206;
    • subordinated and made helpful to the principle of human brotherhood, 207-208.
  • Liberty and union,
    • Hamilton's idea of, 44-45;
    • prevailing view of, during "era of good feeling," 51.
  • Life insurance companies,
    • attempted regulation of, by various state governments, 355.
  • Lincoln, Abraham,
    • first appearance of, in debates with Douglas, 85-86;
    • service of, in seeing straighter and thinking harder than did his contemporaries, 87;
    • makes the Western Democracy understand for the first time that American nationality is a living principle, 88;
    • peculiar service rendered by and wherein his greatness lay, 88-89;
    • the personal worth of, 89;
    • early career and surroundings of, 89-90;
    • wherein he differed from the average Western Democrat, 90-91;
    • training and development of his intellect, 91-92;
    • further consideration of his character, 94 ff.;
    • contrasted with Jefferson, 95;
    • with Garrison, 95427;
    • with Jackson, 96;
    • necessity for emphasis of the difference between, and his contemporary fellow-countrymen, 98-99;
    • national intellectual and moral stature of, 427.
  • Low, Seth, as a reformer, 143.
  • Lynching,
    • cause of, 318;
    • method of stopping, 344.
M
  • Machinery,
    • place of, in American economic development, 108.
  • Machines, political, 117 ff.;
    • created to satisfy a real need, 124-125;
    • power of, felt in the courts, 318;
    • corruption and incompetence of state legislative organizations traceable to, 321;
    • complete reform of local administrative systems necessary for breaking power of, 334;
    • civil service reform has not retarded progress of, 335.
  • McClellan, George B.,
    • as a reformer, 143.
  • Madison, James,
    • conduct of second war with England by, 53-54.
  • Manufacturing,
    • Hamilton's policy in encouraging, 39.
  • Merit system in offices, 143;
    • disappointing results of establishment of, 334-337.
  • Mexico,
    • coöperation, of, in establishment of stable international system, 303.
  • Middle Ages,
    • city states of the, 215;
    • origins of the national state found in, 217 ff.
  • Middle class,
  • Militarism and nationality, 254 ff.
  • Millionaire,
    • the "tainted," a result of extreme individualism, 149.
  • "Money Power,"
    • Jacksonian Democracy's attitude toward, 59.
  • Monopolies,
    • suggested measures against, in municipalities, 374.
  • Monroe Doctrine, the, 290 ff.;
    • accepted as the corollary of policy contained in Washington's Farewell Address, 291;
    • the American retort to the Holy Alliance, 291-292;
    • American democratic idea converted into a dangerously aggressive principle by, 293-294;
    • results to United States of attempting to enforce, 296-297;
    • implies an incompatibility between American and European institutions which does not exist, 297;
    • continued adherence to, will involve United States in fruitless wars, 299-300;
    • necessity of forestalling inevitable future objections to, 307.
  • Morgan, J. Pierpont, 202.
  • Mugwumps, 141.
  • Muirhead, James, quoted, 18-19.
  • Municipal corporations, relations of state governments to, 347-348.
  • Municipal reform, 143.
  • Münsterberg, Hugo, quoted, 3.
N
  • Napoleon, 224225259.
  • National Bank, the, 3957-5868.
  • Nationality,
    • slavery and American, 72 ff.;
    • proposed doing away with, by international socialism, a mistake, 210-211;
    • origins of the modern system, 215 ff.;
    • development of principle of, in European states, 215-221;
    • efficiency resulting from, but also abuses, 221-222;
    • creed of French Revolutionists inimical to spirit of, 222-223;
    • increased force of principle, resulting from abuses of French under Napoleon, 225;
    • bearing of Treaty of Vienna and political system of the Holy Alliance on, 225-226;
    • true meaning of, first understood after revolutionary epoch of 1848, 226-230;
    • no universal and perfect machinery for securing, experience shows, 229-230;
    • relation between principles of, and principles of democracy, 230;
    • principle of, and of democracy, in England, 230 ff.;
    • democracy and, in France, 239 ff.;
    • relation between democracy and, in Germany, 246 ff.;
    • schism created in German, by the Social Democrats, 251;
    • militarism and, 254 ff.;
    • colonial expansion is proper to principle of, 259;
    • international relations a condition of, 263-264;
    • important position of tradition in principle of, 265-266;
    • principles of, and of democracy, in America, 267 ff.;
    • and centralization, 272-279.
  • Nationalization,
    • meaning of process of, 274.
  • Non-interference,
  • Non-resistance,
    • doctrine of, not meant for this world, 282.
  • Non-union laborers, 387-389;
    • effect on, of proposed constructive organization of labor, 395.
O
  • Old age pensions in England, 239.
  • Opportunity,
    • necessity of enjoyment of, by individuals, 203.
  • Order,
    • maintenance of, as a state function, 344-345.
  • Oregon,
    • the initiative in, 328.
  • Ore lands,
    • lease of, to United States Steel Corporation, 114.
P
  • Pan-Americanism, 313-314.
  • Parker, Alton B., 163.
  • Paternalism, German, 250.
  • Patriotism,
    • national, 2;
    • American, contrasted with that of other nations 2-3.
  • Peace,
    • democracy and, 308 ff.
  • Pensions,
    • old age, in England, 239;
    • military, in United States, 274.
  • Philippines,
    • questions concerning American acquisition of, 308-309.
  • Poland,
    • partition of, 222.
  • Police force,
  • Political specialist.
  • Politics,
    • separation of the business man from, 117;
    • specialized organization of, 118-121.
  • Popular sovereignty,
    • Stephen A. Douglas's theory of, 84-86;
    • criticism of democracy defined as, 176-178;
    • principle of, as represented by French Revolutionaries, 223-224;
    • principle of national sovereignty not to be confused with, 265-266;
    • the essential condition of democracy, 269-270;
    • definition of the phrase, 279 ff.;
    • is equivalent for Americans to the phrase "national Sovereignty," 280;
    • misconceptions of, notably Douglas's error, 281.
  • Porto Rico,
    • relations between United States and, 308.
  • Poverty,
    • as a social danger in a democratic state, 205.
  • Prisons,
    • improvement of, as a function of the state, 345.
  • Profits of corporations,
    • disposal of question of excessive, 370.
  • Property,
    • preservation of institution of private, 209.
  • Protection,
    • Whig policy of, and its defeat, 68;
    • Bismarck's policy of, 250.
  • Public ownership, 366-367;
    • municipal, 372-375;
    • the portion of railroad property properly subject to, 376-377;
    • another plan of, regarding railroads, 377-378.
  • Public Service Commissions of New York State, 360-361;
    • principal objection to, 368.
  • Public service corporations holding municipal franchises,
  • Pure Food Bill,
    • class discrimination in, 191.
R
  • Railroads,
    • conditions of growth of American, 109;
    • the granting of rebates by, 110-111;
    • public ownership of, advocated by W.J. Bryan, 158;
    • state ownership of, in Prussia, 250;
    • constructive organization of, in United States, 351 ff.;
    • domination of, in politics of states, 352-353;
    • undesirability of state supervision of, and danger to roads themselves, 353-354;
    • ignorant and unwise legislation by states concerning, 354-355;
    • substitution of control of central government for state control, 356-357;
    • policy to be followed by central government toward 357 ff.;
    • law should be passed providing for agreements between roads, and mergers, 364-305;
    • freedom should be left to, to make rates and schedules, and develop their traffic, 365-366;
    • public ownership of, 366;
    • regulation of, by Federal commissions a doubtful step, 360-363368;
    • process of combination among, and results, 375-376;
    • value of monopoly possessed by, could be secured to the community by Federal government taking possession of terminals, right of way, tracks, and stations, 376-377;
    • the alternative plan, of government appropriation of roads, and its working out, 377-378.
    • See Corporations.
  • Real estate tax, 385.
  • Rebates, 109110-113357.
  • Recall,
    • principle of the, 332-333;
    • employment of the, in suggested administrative system, 338340.
  • Referendum,
    • movement in favor of, in state governments, 320;
    • pros and cons of the, 327-328.
  • Reform,
    • course of the movement, 141-142;
    • variety in kinds of, 142-143;
    • variety found in exponents of, 143-144;
    • function of, according to the reformers, 144-145;
    • disappointment of hopes for, and reasons, 145-147;
    • a better understanding of meaning of, and of the function of reformers, necessary to successful correction of abuses, 147;
    • causes of need for, 148-150;
    • wrong conceptions of, and intellectual awakening essential for, 150;
    • true methods for accomplishing, 152-154;
    • state institutional, 315 ff.;
    • policy of drift should not be allowed in, 315-316;
    • state administrative, 333 ff.;
    • impossibility of accomplishing, by Australian ballot, direct primary system, and similar devices, 341-343;
    • direct practical value of a movement for, may be surpassed by its indirect educational value, 408.
  • Reich, Emil, quoted, 1.
  • Religious wars,
    • bearing of, on national development of European states, 219.
  • Republicanism,
    • represented by Jefferson, 28-293031;
    • identified with political disorder and social instability by Federalists, 32-33;
    • opposition of, to Federalism as represented by Hamilton, 42-46;
    • alliance of Federalists and party of, 46-47;
    • effects of combination, 50-51;
    • Jefferson's Republicanism contrasted with Jackson's Democracy, 52;
    • views held by supporters of, on slavery question, 78.
  • Republican party,
    • causes leading to organization of the modern, 83;
    • its claims to being the first genuinely national party, 83-84;
    • rescue of, by Roosevelt, 171.
  • Revolutions,
    • question of, 210.
  • Rockefeller, John D., 111-112114115.
  • Roman Empire, the, 216.
  • Roosevelt, Theodore, 86136155;
    • as a reformer, 142167;
    • nationalization of reform by, 168-170;
    • policy of, compared with Hamiltonian creed, 169;
    • theory and practice of, contrasted with Jefferson's, 170;
    • the rescue of the Republican party by, 171;
    • vulnerability of, on the point of equal rights, 172;
    • has really been building better than he knew or will admit, 173-174;
    • criticism of, as a national reformer, 174-175.
  • Roosevelt-Taft programme, of recognition of corporations,
    • tempered by regulation, 358-359;
    • how best to carry out, 359-360.
  • Root, Elihu, 135;
    • international system indicated by, 301.
  • Russia,
S
  • Saloon licenses, 385.
  • Santayana, George, quoted, 454.
  • Scientists,
    • methods of, a perfect type of authoritative technical methods, 434.
  • Sherman Anti-Trust Law,
    • a bar to proper treatment of corporate aggrandizement, 274;
    • as an expensive attempt to save the life of the small competitor who cannot hold his own, should be repealed, 359.
  • Slaveholders,
    • an impartial estimate of, 81-82.
  • Slavery,
    • effect of introduction of factor of, on Democrats and Whigs, 72;
    • sanctioned by the Constitution, and results, 72-73;
    • attitude of the two political parties toward, 73-74;
    • shirking of the question, and compromises, 74;
    • brings out inconsistency of alliance between Jeffersonian democracy and American nationality as embodied in Constitutional Union, 75;
    • Webster's attitude on the question, 75-77;
    • American people separated into five parties by, 77;
    • attitude of Constitutional Unionists toward, 78;
    • beliefs of Abolitionists, Southern Democrats, Northern Democrats, and Republicans, 78-79;
    • body of public opinion looking to de-nationalizing slavery, which was organized into the Republican party, 83-84.
  • Smythe, William, 151.
  • Social Democrats,
    • party of, in Germany, 251.
  • Socialism,
    • weakness of, 210;
    • idea of an international, a mistake, 210-211.
  • Socialists,
    • doctrine preached by extreme, in France, 243.
  • Social problem,
    • democracy and the, 138-140.
  • South America,
    • bearing of Monroe Doctrine on, and possible complications resulting from, 294-296.
  • Spain,
    • religious wars of, 219;
    • national feeling in, increased by abuses of Napoleon, 225.
  • Specialization,
    • contempt for, in Middle West of pioneer days, 63-65;
    • necessity for, resulting from industrial development, 102-103;
    • of the American business man, 105 ff., 117;
    • of the politician, 117 ff.;
    • labor unions a decisive instance of, 126 ff.;
    • among lawyers, 134-135;
    • regarded as a revolt from the national democratic tradition, 138-139;
    • perils of, to American social organization, 139;
    • part to be played in individual emancipation by, 427-441.
  • Spoils system,
    • causes of introduction of, 5759-60;
    • effect of, opposite of that intended, 60-61;
    • civil service reform and the, 143.
  • "Square deal," Roosevelt's, 20151172.
  • Standard of living,
    • a constantly higher, for wage-earners, 206;
    • labor unions an effective machinery for raising, 387.
  • Standard Oil Company,
    • attempted regulation of, by various states, 355.
  • Standards,
    • in scientific work and in liberal or practical arts, 434-435;
    • acquirement of authentic, 435-436;
    • of technical excellence, 436-437;
    • only way of improving popular, for men of higher standards, 443-444.
  • State,
    • development of the national, 215 ff.;
    • increasing political efficiency of, shown to be proportioned to responsible exercise of powers, 217-220.
  • State governments,
    • reorganization of, in democratic spirit, after Revolutionary War, 31;
    • lack of success of American, 317;
    • failure of criminal and civil courts, 318;
    • chaotic condition of tax systems and educational systems, 318-319;
    • incompetent and frequently dishonest financial and economic legislation, 319;
    • fault lies partly in existing standards of morality, but in part also is result of unwise organization, 319;
    • demand for reorganization of, 319-320;
    • movement in favor of initiative and referendum in, 320327-328;
    • wrong diagnosis of causes of legislative corruption and incompetence, 320-321;
    • reasons for failure of, 321 ff.;
    • disadvantages of system of checks and balances in, 323-324;
    • failure of, to be imputed chiefly to lack of a centralized responsible organization, 324;
    • improvement in legislatures necessary, 326-329;
    • plan suggested for improvement of, 328-331;
    • administrative reform in, 333 ff.;
    • maintenance of order by, 344;
    • reorganization of criminal laws by, 344-345;
    • improvement of prisons and insane asylums by, 345;
    • possible activities of, in relation to labor, educational questions, etc., 346;
    • method of attaining their maximum usefulness, 347;
    • relation of, to cities, 347-349;
    • questions such as regulation of commerce, control of corporations, distribution of wealth, and prevention of poverty outside of field of activities of, 350;
    • domination of railroads in, 352-353;
    • interference of, with railroad, insurance, and other corporations, 353-355.
  • Steffens, Lincoln, 163.
  • Sterilization of criminals, 345.
  • Strikes, 127-128392.
  • Suffrage,
    • advantages and disadvantages of a limited, 198-199.
  • Supreme Court,
    • power of the, 132-133;
    • success of, in the American political system, 134;
    • question of life tenure of office of judges of, 200.
T
  • Taft, President, 135.
  • Tammany Hall, 125151.
  • Tariff,
    • an example of class legislation, 191;
    • Federal authorities responsible for, 274;
    • first duty of United States to revise, 305.
  • Tariff reform, 142-143.
  • Taxation,
    • remedying excessive profits of corporations by, 370;
    • as a weapon of municipalities against monopolies, 374;
    • use of power of, to equalize distribution of wealth and raise money for governmental expenses, 381;
    • of inheritances, 382-385;
    • of incomes, 384-385;
    • real estate and saloon, 385.
  • Tax systems,
    • state, chaotic condition of, 318.
  • Technical schools,
  • Tobacco manufacture,
    • regulation of, by government, 379.
  • Tolstoy,
    • pernicious results of triumph of democracy of, 282;
    • led into error by brotherly feelings, 453.
  • Trade schools, 391.
  • Tradition,
    • force of accumulated national, in forming a people into a state, 227259;
    • the national, of England, Germany, France, and America, 267-270;
    • necessity of emancipation of nations from, 279.
  • Trust funds,
  • Trusts.
U
  • Un-Americanism,
    • the reforming spirit wrongly called, 49.
  • Unification, of Germany by Bismarck, 247-249;
    • wars which helped toward, were justifiable, 256.
  • Unionism, labor.
  • United States Steel Corporation,
    • lease of ore lands by, 114.
V
  • Vienna, Treaty of, 225.
  • Virtue,
    • the principle of democracy, 454.
  • Voting,
    • for state representatives, 329;
    • American systems of, 341-343.
W

  • Wage-earners,
    • increasing standard of living for, 206;
    • weakness of socialistic programme for, 210-211.
    • See Labor unions.
  • War of 1812 and its lessons, 53-55.
  • Wars,
    • justifiability of, 255-256;
    • likelihood of more, before establishment of a stable European
    • situation, 257.
  • Washington,
    • foreign policy contained in Farewell Address of, 290.
  • Wealth,
    • necessity of opportunity for acquiring, 203;
    • improvement in the distribution of, 209-210;
    • distribution of, in France, 244-245;
    • equalization of distribution of, by graduated inheritance tax, 381-385.
  • Webster, Daniel, 52427;
  • Wells, H.G., quoted, 4.
  • Whigs,
    • standards represented by, against Jacksonian or Western Democracy, 65-67;
    • wherein they improved on the Federalists, 67;
    • policy of internal improvements, 66;
    • its failure, 67-68;
    • failure regarding re-chartering of National Bank,68;
    • and regarding policy of protection, 68;
    • complete failure in fight against Federal executive, 68-69;
    • reason for failures, 69-70;
    • attitude of, toward slavery, 73-74.
  • Workingmen,
    • party composed of, in Germany, 251.