1258 Hulagu , a Mongol leader, seizes Baghdad, bringing an end to the Abbasid caliphate.
1620 Supporters of Marie de Medici , the queen mother, who has been exiled to Blois, are defeated by the king's troops at Ponts de Ce, France.
1763 The Treaty of Paris ends the French-Indian War. France gives up all her territories in the New World except New Orleans and a few scattered islands.
1799 Napoleon Bonaparte leaves Cairo, Egypt, for Syria, at the head of 13,000 men.
1814 Napoleon personally directs lightning strikes against enemy columns advancing toward Paris, beginning with a victory over the Russians at Champaubert.
1840 Queen Victoria marries
Prince Albert .
1846 Led by religious leader Brigham Young , the first Mormons begin a long westward exodus from Nauvoo, Il., to Utah.
1863 P.T. Barnum's star midgets,
Tom Thumb and Lavinia Warren , are married.
1904 Russia and Japan declare war on each other.
1915 President Wilson blasts the British for using the U.S. flag on merchant ships to deceive the Germans.
1939 Japanese occupy island of Hainan in French Indochina.
1941 London severs diplomatic relations with Romania.
1941 Iceland is attacked by German planes.
1942 The war halts civilian car production at Ford.
1945 B-29s hit the Tokyo area.
1955 Bell Aircraft displays a fixed-wing vertical takeoff plane.
1960 Adolph Coors , the beer brewer, is kidnapped in Golden, Colo.
1966 Protester David Miller is convicted of burning his draft card.
1979 The Metropolitan Museum announces the first major theft in its 110-year history, $150,000 Greek marble head.
1986 The largest Mafia trial in history, with 474 defendants, opens in Palermo, Italy.